Functional Neuroimaging in Exercise and Sport Sciences
- Binding: Hardcover
- Publish Date: 2012-06-19
Regular physical exercise is associated with substantial health benefits. Recent evidence not only holds for cardiovascular effects promoting physical health, but also for the central nervous systemÂ believed to promote brain healthâ. Moderate physical exercise has been found to improve learning, memory, and attentional processing, with recent research indicating that neuroprotectiveÂ mechanisms and associated plasticity in brain structure and function also benefit. Physical exercise is also known to induce a range of acute or sustained psychophysiological effects, among theseÂ mood elevation, stress reduction, anxiolysis, and hypoalgesia.Â Today, modern functional neuroimaging techniques afford direct measurement of the acute and chronic relation of physical exercise onÂ the human brain, as well as the correlation of the derived physiologicalÂ in vivoÂ signals with behavioral outcomes recorded during and after exercise. A wide range of imaging techniques have beenÂ applied to human exercise research, ranging from electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to positronÂ emission tomography (PET). All of these imaging methods provide distinct information, and they differ considerably in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, availability, cost, and associated risks.Â However, from a âmultimodal imagingâ perspective, neuroimaging provides an unprecedented potential to unravel the neurobiology of human exercise, covering a wide spectrum ranging from structuralÂ plasticity in gray and white matter, network dynamics, global and regional perfusion, evoked neuronal responses to the quantification of neurotransmitter release.Â The aim of this book is to provide theÂ current state of the human neuroimaging literature in the emerging field of the neurobiological exercise sciences and to outline future applications and directions of research.